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Capital

Vilnius

Largest City

Vilnius

Languages

Lithuanian

Area

65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi)

Population

2,872,294

Currency

Euro

Drivers on the

RIGHT

Calling Code

370

Nationality

86.7% Lithuanians

5.6% Poles

4.8% Russians

1.3% Belarusians

0.7% Ukrainians

0.1% Jews

0.1% Tatars

0.5% other countries


HISTORY

STATES AND TERRITORIES

For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, and the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe; present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were the territories of the Grand Duchy. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772-95, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.

As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the establishment of a sovereign State of Lithuania. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end in 1944 and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania.

Lithuania's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are -2.5 °C (27.5 °F) in January and 16 °C (61 °F) in July. In Vilnius the average temperatures are -6 °C (21 °F) in January and 17 °C (63 °F) in July. During the summer, 20 °C (68 °F) is common during the day while 14 °C (57 °F) is common at night; in the past, temperatures have reached as high as 30 or 35 °C (86 or 95 °F). Some winters can be very cold. -20 °C (-4 °F) occurs almost every winter. Winter extremes are -34 °C (-29 °F) in coastal areas and -43 °C (-45 °F) in the east of Lithuania.  

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

ECONOMY

Dubai's gross domestic product as of 2011 was US $83.4 billion. Although Dubai's economy was built on the back of the oil industry, revenues from oil and natural gas currently account for less than 7% of the emirate's revenues. It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (11,000 m3) of oil a dayand substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in UAE's gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years. Real estate and construction (22.6%), trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy. Dubai's top exporting destinations include India (US$ 5.8 billion), Switzerland (US$ 2.37 billion) and Saudi Arabia (US$ 0.57 billion). Dubai's top re-exporting destinations include India (US$ 6.53 billion), Iran (US$ 5.8 billion) and Iraq (US$ 2.8 billion). The emirate's top import sources are India (US$ 12.55 billion), China (US$ 11.52 billion) and the United States (US$ 7.57 billion). As of 2009 India was Dubai's largest trade partner.

The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004 to 2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008. The large scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab. Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008 and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the Great Recession taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment. This has had a major impact on property investors in the region, some of whom were unable to release funds from investments made in property developments. As of February 2009 Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide. Dubai real estate and UAE property experts believe that by avoiding the mistakes of the past, Dubai's realty market can achieve stability in future.

The Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion. The other Dubai-based stock exchange is NASDAQ Dubai, which is the international stock exchange in the Middle East. It enables a range of companies, including UAE and regional small and medium-sized enterprises, to trade on an exchange with an international brand name, with access by both regional and international investors.

Dubai is also known as City of Gold, a major part of economy based on Gold trades in Dubai, Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reached 580 tonnes (average price US$1,455).

A City Mayors survey rated Dubai as 44th among the world's best financial cities in 2007, while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai was the world's 27th richest city in 2012, in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). Dubai is also an international financial centre and has been ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2007) and 1st within the Middle East.

In 2012, the Global City Competitiveness Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Dubai at No. 40 with a total score of 55.9. According to their 2013 research report on the future competitiveness of cities, in 2025 Dubai moves up to 23rd place overall in the Index. Indians are top foreign investors in Dubai realty.

Dubai has launched several major projects to support its economy and develop different sectors. These include Dubai Fashion 2020 which is believed to be fully unveiled by fall of 2013 and Dubai Design District, expected to become a home to leading local and international designers. The AED 4 billion phase 1 of the project will be complete by January 2015.

Tourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping, but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions. As of 2010, Dubai was the 7th most visited city of the world with 7.6 million visitors a year Dubai is expected to accommodate over 15 million tourists by 2015. The emirate is also the most populous emirate of the seven emirates of United Arab Emirates. It is distinct from other members of the UAE in that a large part of the emirate's revenues are from tourism.[103]

In 2012 a 16.4% increase in inflation affected the city's restaurant and hotel sector. In early August 2013, plans for Dubai's first underwater hotel the Water Discus Hotel were publicly revealed. Developed by Polish companyDeep Ocean Technology, the Water Discus will be the world's largest hotel of its kind and will be in addition to two underwater suites in existence at Dubai's The Palm: Atlantis accommodation venue.

Dubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East".Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping malls, including the world's largest shopping mall, Dubai Mall. The city draws large numbers of shopping tourists from countries within the region and from as far as Eastern Europe, Africa and the Indian Subcontinent.

Dubai is also known for the traditional souk districts located on either side of the creek. Traditionally, dhows from East Asia, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks. Dubai Creek played a vital role in the sustainment of life of the community in Dubai originally and was the setting point which caused the economic boom in Dubai. As of September 2013, Dubai creek has been proposed as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Many boutiques and jewellery stores are also found in the city. Dubai is also known as "the City of Gold" as Gold Souk in Deira houses nearly 250 gold retail shops. Dubai Duty Free (DDF) at the Dubai International Airport offers merchandise catering to the multinational passengers using the airport.

Drug laws are very strictly enforced. Possession of trace amounts of illegal drugs has resulted in long prison sentences for foreign citizens transiting in the UAE. Several people have been arrested for possession of trace amounts stuck to the soles of their shoes, adhering to their clothing, or in pocket lint.[

Dubai is currently the home of the famous former Cunard ocean liner, Queen Elizabeth 2. The ship was bought by developers Istithmar World in 2007 for US$100m at Port Rashid. QE2's distinctive profile is a regular sight for travellers arriving into Dubai International Airport as the flight path takes aircraft over the port. In January 2013, the QE2's owners announced that the ship will be upgraded into a luxury floating hotel with 500 rooms and will be moored in an Asian harbor. The refurbishment will be completed in collaboration with Oceanic Group based in Singapore. The refurbisment is expected to be completed by 2015 and would include seven restaurants, 10 lounges, a cinema, a museum and a mall.

On November 2, 2011 four cities had their bids for Expo 2020 already lodged, with Dubai making the last-minute entry. The delegation from the Bureau International des Expositions, who visited Dubai in February 2013 to examine the Emirate’s readiness for the largest exposition, was impressed by the infrastructure, and the level of national support. In May 2013, Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan was revealed showing the city's great chances to win. If the city’s bid is successful, the event will bring huge economic benefits by generating activities worth billions of dirhams. According to a research from Oxford Economics, Dubai Expo 2020 may create over 270,000 jobs. Dubai won the right to host Expo 2020 on November 27, 2013.

DUBAI BID FOR EXPO 2020

CLIMATE

TOURISM AND RETAIL

The school system in Dubai follows that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009, there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools. The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.

The New Indian Model School, Dubai (NIMS), Delhi Private School, Our Own English High School, the Dubai Modern High School, and The Indian High School, Dubai offers either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children.

Dubai English Speaking School, Jumeirah Primary School, Jebel Ali Primary School, Cambridge International School, Jumeirah English Speaking School, King's School and the Horizon School all offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, Dubai College, English College Dubai, English Language School Pvt., Jumeirah English Speaking School – Arabian Ranches, Jumeirah College and St. Mary's Catholic High School are British eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels. Emirates International School, The Cambridge International School and Wellington International School provide full student education up to the age of 18, and offers International General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels. Deira International School, Dubai International Academy and Jumeirah English Speaking School offer the International Baccalaureate program with the IGCSE program. Dubai American Academy, American School of Dubai and the Universal American School of Dubai offer curriculum of the United States.

The Ministry of Education of the United Arab Emirates is responsible for accreditation of schools.

The Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA) was established in 2006 to develop education and human resource sectors in Dubai, and license educational institutes.

Approximately 10% of the population has university or postgraduate degrees. Many expatriates tend to send their children back to their home country or to Western countries for university education and to India for technology studies. However, a sizeable number of foreign accredited universities have been set up in the city over the last ten years. Some of these universities include Hult International Business School, Manchester Business School, RIT Dubai, Michigan State University Dubai (MSU Dubai), Middlesex University Dubai campus, the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani – Dubai (BITS Pilani), Murdoch University Dubai, Heriot-Watt University Dubai, American University in Dubai (AUD), Gulf Medical University Gulf Medical College, European university college(nicolas and asp postgraduate dental college), the American College of Dubai, Mahatma Gandhi University (Off-Campus Centre), Amity University in Dubai, Institute of Management Technology – Dubai Campus, SP Jain Center of Management, University of Wollongong in Dubai, University of Waterloo – UAE Campus, and MAHE Manipal. In 2004, the Dubai School of Government in collaboration with Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and Harvard Medical School Dubai Center (HMSDC) were established in Dubai. In 2010 London College of Fashion began to run its thrice-yearly portfolio of fashion short courses which are run in Dubai using London-based tutors. The Dubai Public Libraries is the public library system in Dubai.

EDUCATION

As per the 2011 census, 77.2% of Lithuanians belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.[86] The Church has been the majority denomination since the Christianisation of Lithuania at the end of the 14th century. Some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime (symbolised by the Hill of Crosses).

In the first half of the 20th century, the Lutheran Protestant church had around 200,000 members, 9% of the total population, mostly Protestant Lithuanians and ethnic Germans from the former Memel Territory, but it has declined since 1945 with the removal of the German population. Small Protestant communities are dispersed throughout the northern and western parts of the country. Believers and clergy suffered greatly during the Soviet occupation, with many killed, tortured or deported to Siberia. Various Protestant churches have established missions in Lithuania since 1990.[87] 4.1% are Orthodox (mainly among the Russian minority), 0.8% are Protestant and 6.1% have no religion.

Lithuania was historically home to a significant Jewish community and was an important center of Jewish scholarship and culture from the 18th century until the eve of World War II. Prior to the war, the Jewish population, outside of the Vilnius region (which was then in Poland), numbered about 160,000.

RELIGION

The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd - 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes. The first written mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval German manuscript, the Annals of Quedlinburg, in an entry dated 9 March 1009.

Initially inhabited by fragmented Baltic tribes, in the 1230s the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of Lithuania on 6 July 1253.[10] After his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of the Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and the Livonian Order. Despite the devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly, overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'.

By the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was one of the largest countries in Europe and included present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.[11] The geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined the multicultural and multi-confessional character of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The ruling elite practised religious tolerance and Chancery Slavonic language was used as an auxiliary language to the Latin for official documents.

In 1385, the Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Poland's offer to become its king. Jogaila embarked on gradual Christianization of Lithuania and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. It implied that Lithuania, the fiercely independent land, was one of the last pagan areas of Europe to adopt Christianity.

After two civil wars, Vytautas the Great became the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1392. During his reign, Lithuania reached the peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state began, and the Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics. In the great Battle of the Vorskla River in 1399, the combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated by the Mongols. Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Lithuania and Poland achieved a great victory over the Teutonic Knights in 1410 at the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles of medieval Europe

After the deaths of Jogaila and Vytautas, the Lithuanian nobility attempted to break the union between Poland and Lithuania, independently selecting Grand Dukes from the Jagiellon dynasty. But, at the end of the 15th century, Lithuania was forced to seek a closer alliance with Poland when the growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow threatened Lithuania's Russian principalities and sparked the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars and the Livonian War.

Lithuania is located in Northern Europe. It covers an area of 65,200 km2 (25,200 sq mi).[29] The country lies between latitudes 53° and 57° N, and mostly between longitudes 21° and 27° E (part of the Curonian Spit lies west of 21°). It has around 99 kilometres (61.5 mi) of sandy coastline, of which only about 38 kilometres (24 mi) face the open Baltic Sea and which is the shortest among the Baltic Sea countries; the rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsula. Lithuania's major warm-water port, Klaipeda, lies at the narrow mouth of the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuanian: Kuršiu marios), a shallow lagoon extending south to Kaliningrad. The main and largest river, the Nemunas River, and some of its tributaries carry international shipping.

Lithuania lies at the edge of North European Plain. Its landscape has been smoothed by the glaciers of the last ice age. Lithuania's terrain is an alternation of moderate lowlands and highlands; its maximum elevation is Aukštojas Hill at 294 metres (965 ft) in the eastern part of the country. The terrain features numerous lakes, Lake Vištytis for example, and wetlands; a mixed forest zone covers nearly 33% of the country.

After a re-estimation of the boundaries of the continent of Europe in 1989, Jean-George Affholder, a scientist at the Institut Gēographique National (French National Geographic Institute) determined that the Geographic Centre of Europe is located at 54°54'N 25°19'E.[30] The method used for calculating this point was that of the centre of gravity of the geometrical figure of Europe. This point is located in Lithuania, specifically 26 kilometres (16 mi) north of its capital city, Vilnius.

UNIVERSITIES

Healthcare in Dubai can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. In the 1980s to 1998, more than 20 medical clinics were built within the Emirate. Dubai then followed the WHO’s policy of ‘Healthcare for all by 2000’ and continued to build

A new initiative of the Dubai Health Care Authority was launched in 2007. UAE nationals make up less than 20% of the population in Dubai, as most of the populations are from foreign origins. No laws forbid foreign nationals from using the national and public healthcare systems.

HEALTH

We offer lifelong learning opportunities to fulfill dreams and achieve success, by delivering quality education to all our students, within a culture of care.

Mission

To extend knowledge, stimulate learning, and promote understanding, for the benefit of our global

COURSES

BUSINESS

  • Bachelor of Commerce in Finance (Bcom)
  • Management
  • Marketing

Vision Statement


Vision


We offer lifelong learning opportunities to fulfill dreams and achieve success, by delivering quality education to all our students, within a culture of care.

Mission

To extend knowledge, stimulate learning, and promote understanding, for the benefit of our global


Values


These values are an intrinsic part of the Siauliai Wroclaw University culture:


  • Equity and Social Justice
  • Global Responsibility
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship
  • Sustainability


Themes


Focus on Quality


Murdoch will continue to build on our reputation for high quality teaching. Resources will be applied strategically towards achieving superior educational outcomes in our areas of strength.


Our People


Valuing and developing our people is essential to long term success. Our capacity to achieve our goals is dependent on our ability to attract, develop, nurture and retain high quality academic and professional staff. Working together through interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork across the University will maximize our ability to succeed.


Engagement


Engagement with internal and external stakeholders, including our students, staff, alumni, industry, government and communities in which we live and work, will underpin all of our activities.


Commercial & Financial Rigour


Commercial and financial rigour will underpin the University's decision making at all levels of the organization, and will help increase resources for pursuing strategic priorities.

BUSINESS MEDIA COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE

  • Journalism
  • Public Relations
  • UG Screen Production
  • Double Major BusInformSystem CompScience
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Values


These values are an intrinsic part of the Siauliai Wroclaw University culture:


Lithuania

Malaysia

Malaysia

Australia

Australia

Germany

Germany

India

India

Dubai

Dubai

Singapore

Singapore

New Zealand

New Zealand