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Capital

Singapore

Languages

English, Malay, Mandarin Tamil

Area

716.1 km2[4] (190th)

276 sq mi

Population

5,399,200

Currency

Singapore dollar (SGD)

Drivers on the

LEFT

Calling Code

65

Temasek ('sea town'), a second century outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya empire, is the earliest known settlement on Singapore. The island was part of the Sri Vijaya Empire until it was invaded by the south Indian Emperor Rajendra Chola I, of the Chola Empire, in the 11th century.[12][13] In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement and the island sank into obscurity for the next two centuries.[14] Nominally, it belonged to the Johor Sultanate during this period.


In 1819, Thomas Stamford Raffles arrived and signed a treaty with Sultan Hussein Shah of Johor, on behalf of the British East India Company, to develop the southern part of Singapore as a British trading post. In 1824, the entire island became a British possession under a further treaty with the Sultan, as well as the Temenggong.[15] In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, becoming the regional capital in 1836.[16] Prior to Raffles' arrival, there were approximately 1,000 people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese.[17] By 1860, the population exceeded 80,000 and more than half were Chinese. Many immigrants came to work at rubber plantations and, after the 1870s, the island became a global centre for rubber exports.[15]


During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded British Malaya, culminating in the Battle of Singapore. The British were defeated, surrendering on 15 February 1942. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called this "... the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history".[18] The Sook Ching massacre of ethnic Chinese after the fall of Singapore claimed between 5,000 and 25,000 lives.[19] The Japanese occupied Singapore until the British repossessed it in September 1945, after the Surrender of Japan.[20]


Singapore's first general election in 1955 was won by David Marshall, the pro-independence leader of the Labour Front. He led a delegation to London to demand complete self-rule but was turned down by the British. He subsequently resigned and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock, whose policies convinced Britain to grant Singapore full internal self-government for all matters except defence and foreign affairs.[21]


A cheering crowd welcome the return of British forces, 1945

During the May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party won a landslide victory. Singapore became an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth and Lee Kuan Yew became the country's first Prime Minister.[22] Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State), and was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak, who became the first President of Singapore in 1965.[23] During the 1950s, Chinese Communists with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools carried out an armed uprising against the government, leading to the Malayan Emergency and later, the Communist Insurgency War. The 1954 National Service Riots, Chinese middle schools riots, and Hock Lee bus riots in Singapore were all linked to these events.[24]


On 31 August 1963, Singapore declared independence from the United Kingdom, and joined with the Federation of Malaya, the Crown Colony of Sarawak and British North Borneo to form the new Federation of Malaysia as the result of the 1962 Merger Referendum. Singaporean leaders chose to join Malaysia primarily due to concerns regarding their limited land size and scarcity of land, water, markets and natural resources. They also were hoping to enlist the help of the Malaysian government to combat the internal Communist threat.


However, the two years that Singapore spent as part of Malaysia were filled with strife and bitter disagreements. The Malaysians insisted on a pro-Bumiputera (Malay for indigenous) society, where indigenous Malays and tribes were given special rights. The Malaysians were also suspicious of Singapore's ethnic Chinese population, and worried that Singapore's economic clout would shift the centre of power from Kuala Lumpur to Singapore. There were also linguistic and religious issues. The Singaporeans, on the other hand, wanted an equal and meritocratic society, a Malaysian Malaysia where all citizens were given equal rights without regard to indigenous or tribal affiliation or ancestry.


The Malaysian parliament blocked many progressive bills, bringing Singapore's economic and social development to a halt. Race riots broke out in Singapore in 1964. After much heated ideological conflicts between the two governments, in 1965, the Malaysian parliament voted 126 to 0 to expel Singapore from Malaysia (the Singaporean delegates were not present and did not vote).[3][25][26] Singapore gained independence as the Republic of Singapore (remaining within the Commonwealth) on 9 August 1965,[3] with Yusof bin Ishak as President and Lee Kuan Yew as Prime Minister. Everyone who was living in Singapore on the date of independence was offered Singapore citizenship. Race riots broke out once more in 1969. In 1967, the country co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations[27] and in 1970 it joined the Non-Aligned Movement.


In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee as Prime Minister. During his tenure, the country faced the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the 2003 SARS outbreak and terrorist threats posed by Jemaah Islamiyah. In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third Prime Minister.[28]

HISTORY

Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3% each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.[154] An analysis by the Pew Research Center found Singapore to be the world's most religiously diverse nation.[156]


There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition,[157] with missionaries having come into the country from Taiwan and China for several decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the populace (not only the Chinese) during the past decade. Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.[158]

RELIGION

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, widely known as Singapore Island, or Pulau Ujong in Malay.[45] There are two man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north, and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 166 m (545 ft).[46]


On-going land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from 581.5 km2 (224.5 sq mi) in the 1960s to 716.1 km2 (276.5 sq mi) presently.[4] The country is projected to grow by another 100 km2 (40 sq mi) by 2030.[47] Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Jurong Island.[48] Close to 10 percent of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and nature reserves, and the network of nature reserves, parks, park connectors, nature ways, tree-lined roads and other natural areas have also enhanced the sense of green space in the city.[49] This is a result of five decades of greening efforts, which began in 1963, when Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew launched Singapore’s first tree-planting campaign by planting a mempat tree (Cratoxylum formosum). The aim was to soften the harshness of urbanisation and improve the quality of life in the city.[50] This initiative was carried through into the 1970s and 1980s under the Parks and Recreation Department (PRD), which was renamed the National Parks Board (Abbreviation: NParks) in July 1996.


Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af ) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C (72 to 95 °F). Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon.[51] April and May are the hottest months, with the wetter monsoon season from November to January.[52] From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia.[53] Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time, it follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.[54]

ECONOMY

Pre-independence economy

Before independence in 1965, Singapore was the capital of the British Straits Settlements, a Crown Colony. It was also the main British naval base in East Asia.[57] Because it was the main British naval base in the region and held the Singapore Naval Base, the largest dry dock of its time, Singapore was commonly described in the press as the 'Gibraltar of the East'.[58] The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 caused a major increase in trade between Europe and Asia, helping Singapore become a major world trade center, and turning the Port of Singapore into one of the largest and busiest ports in the world.[59] Prior to 1965, Singapore had a GDP per capita of $511, then the third-highest in East Asia.[60] After independence, the combination of foreign direct investment and a state-led drive for industrialisation, based on plans by Goh Keng Swee and Albert Winsemius, started the expansion of the country's economy.[61]


Modern-day economy

The port of Singapore with a large number of shipping containers with the skyline of the city visible in the background


The Port of Singapore, one of the world's five busiest,[62] with the skyline of Singapore in the background

Today, Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest,[63] most innovative,[64] most competitive,[65] and most business-friendly.[66] The 2013 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Singapore as the second freest economy in the world, behind Hong Kong. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.


Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world. The country has the highest trade-to-GDP ratio in the world at 407.9 percent, signifying the importance of trade to its economy. The country is currently the only Asian country to receive AAA credit ratings from all three major credit rating agencies: Standard & Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch.[67][68] Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign investment as a result of its location, corruption-free environment, skilled workforce, low tax rates and advanced infrastructure. There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There are also approximately 1,500 companies from China and a similar number from India. Foreign firms are found in almost all sectors of the country's economy.[6] Singapore is also the second-largest foreign investor in India.[69] Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.[70] Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions.[71]


Singapore also possesses the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves,[72] and has one of the highest net international investment position per capita.[73][74] The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar, issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.[75] It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar.[76]


In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy, with an estimated personal wealth worth AU$835 million, and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).[77] Singapore ranked fifth on the Tax Justice Network's 2013 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's top tax havens, scoring narrowly ahead of the United States.[78]


Sectors

Large high-rise buildings at night time


Singapore skyline

Singapore's economy depends heavily on exports and refining imported goods, especially in manufacturing,[79] which constituted 27.2% of the country's GDP in 2010,[6] and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006, Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.[80] Singapore has a diversified economy, a strategy that the government considers vital for its growth and stability despite its size.[81]


Tourism also forms a large part of the economy, and 10.2 million tourists visited the country in 2007.[82] To attract more tourists, the government legalised gambling in 2005 and allowed two casino resorts (called Integrated Resorts) to be developed.[83] Singapore also promotes itself as a medical tourism hub: about 200,000 foreigners seek medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate USD 3 billion in revenue.[84]


Singapore is an education hub, and many foreign students study in Singapore. More than 80,000 international students studied in Singapore in 2006.[85] Every morning, more than 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway thinking that they will receive better education in Singapore.[86] In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students. The students were mainly from ASEAN, China and India.[87]




Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, the most expensive building in the world

Singapore is a world leader in several economic areas: The country is the world's fourth leading financial centre,[88] the world's second largest casino gambling market,[89] one of the world's top three oil-refining centres, the world's largest oil-rig producer, and a major hub for ship repair services.[90][91][92] The port is one of the five busiest ports in the world.[89] The World Bank has named Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business,[89] and ranks Singapore the world's top logistics hub.[93] It is also the world's fourth largest foreign-exchange trading centre after London, New York and Tokyo.[94]


As a result of the recession in the early 2000s and a slump in the technology sector, Singapore's GDP contracted by 2.2% in 2001. The Economic Review Committee was set up in December 2001 and recommended several policy changes to revitalise the economy. Singapore has since recovered, due largely to improvements in the world economy; the economy grew by 8.3% in 2004, 6.4% in 2005,[95] and 7.9% in 2006.[96] After a contraction of 0.8% in 2009, the economy recovered in 2010, with GDP growth of 14.5%.[6] Most work in Singapore is in the service sector, which employed 2,151,400 people out of 3,102,500 jobs in December 2010. The percentage of unemployed economically active people above age 15 is about 2%.[97]


Employment and poverty



A City View of Singapore

Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth (excluding property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive).[98] Singapore does not have a minimum wage, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the highest income inequality levels among developed countries, coming in just behind Hong Kong and in front of the United States.[99][100]


Acute poverty is rare in Singapore; the government has rejected the idea of a generous welfare system, stating that each generation must earn and save enough for its entire life cycle. There are, however, numerous means-tested assistance programs provided by the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports in Singapore, including some that pay out from SGD 400 to SGD 1000 per month to each needy household, free medical care at government hospitals, money for children's school fees, rental of studio apartments, training grants for courses, etc.[101][102][103]

Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though their health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries.[196] The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report.[197] In general, Singapore has had the lowest infant mortality rate in the world for the past two decades.[139] Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. Adult obesity is below 10%.[198]


The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory health savings scheme covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program.[196] Public hospitals in Singapore have autonomy in their management decisions, and compete for patients. A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.[199] In 2008, 31.9% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP

HEALTH

Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education.[179] English is the language of instruction in all public schools,[180] and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "mother tongue" language paper.[181] While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language.[182][183] Students who have been abroad for a while, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.[184][185]


Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, math, and science.[186][187] Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level.[188] The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised.[189] Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools, mostly called Junior Colleges.[190]


Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools. These exist from the secondary education level and up.[188]


National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination,[186] which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, GCE "O"-Level exams are taken; at the end of the following pre-university stage, the GCE "A"-Level exams are taken. Of all non-student Singaporeans aged 15 and above, 18% have no education qualifications at all while 45% have the Primary School Leaving Examination as their highest qualification; 15% have the GCE 'O' Level as their highest qualification and 14% have a degree.[191]


Singaporean students consistently rank in the top five in the world in the two major international assessments of mathematics and science knowledge:


Singaporean students were ranked first in the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, and have been ranked in the top three every year since 1995.[192][193]

Singaporean students were also ranked in the top five in the world in terms of mathematics, science, and reading in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment, conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[194]

The country's two main public universities — the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University — are among the top 50 in the world.[195]

EDUCATION

COURSES

Whether you are preparing to start a career or to further your education after Boston Business School, you will feel inspired and challenged while studying here with us.


During your study, you will learn new skills as well as make new friends. You will meet committed and caring staff and lecturers who will go the extra mile to mentor and guide you. Our facilities are new and have been designed to create a conducive study environment.


We hope you will enjoy your time at Boston Business School. Many have done so before you and have gone onto an exciting and rewarding career. We hope you will also succeed in your learning journey with us.

BUSINESS


Pearson BTEC Level 4 HNC Diploma in Business (QCF) Introduction

Full Time Intakes

Class Commencement Enrolment Period


9 Jun 2014 12 Mar          2014 – 4 May 2014

11 Aug 2014 5 May         2014 – 29 Jun 2014

4 Nov 2014 30 Jun          2014 – 31 Aug 2014


Pearson BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business (QCF) Introduction

Full Time Intakes

Class Commencement Enrolment Period

9 Jun 2014 12 Mar         2014 – 4 May 2014

11 Aug 2014 5 May        2014 – 29 Jun 2014

4 Nov 2014 30 Jun         2014 – 31 Aug 2014

HOTEL


BBS Specialist Diploma in Hospitality Management

Full Time Intake

Class Commencement Enrolment Period

10 Feb 2014 24 Nov 2013 – 28 Dec 2013

17 Mar 2014 29 Dec 2013 – 1 Feb 2014

21 Apr 2014 2 Feb 2014 – 8 Mar 2014

CTH Level 4 Diploma in Hospitality Management QCF

Full Time Intake

Class Commencement Enrolment Period

17 Mar 2014 29 Dec 2013 – 8 Feb 2014

21 Apr 2014 9 Feb 2014 – 15 Mar 2014

16 Jun 2014 16 Mar 2014 – 19 Apr 2014

CTH Level 5 Diploma in Hospitality Management QCF

Full Time Intake

Class Commencement Enrolment Period

17 Mar 2014 29 Dec 2013 – 8 Feb 2014

21 Apr 2014 9 Feb 2014 – 15 Mar 2014

16 Jun 2014 16 Mar 2014 – 19 Apr 2014

CTH Level 7 Post-Graduate Diploma in Hospitality and Tourism Management QCF

Available on request

SINGAPORE

Whether you are preparing to start a career or to further your education after Boston Business School, you will feel inspired and challenged while ………

BOSTON

A member of the Crestar Education Group that has more than 120 centres in its network of kindergarten, preschools, enrichment centres and before and …….

KLC

Whether you are preparing to start a career or to further your education after Boston Business School, you will feel inspired and challenged while ………

LSBF

COURSES

A member of the Crestar Education Group that has more than 120 centres in its network of kindergarten, preschools, enrichment centres and before and after school programmes, KLCII has achieved more than its fair share of accomplishments and recognition.

Today, it is an acknowledged leader in the field of adult education. KLCII was established in 1988 to initially focus on early childhood education, and gradually expanded its suite of courses to meet market demand for quality higher education.


The school became the first private education institution to receive a four-year EduTrust Certification from the Council for Private Education in Singapore in 2010 in the Early Childhood sector.


KLC International Institute is recognised as a WDA-appointed programme partner for the early childhood care & education sector. Our Early Childhood programmes are also accredited by the Early Childhood Development Agency (ECDA).


The industry recognition enables KLCII to continually support its deserving students with scholarships and study grants, as well as internship opportunities in relevant industries.

Today KLCII offers a comprehensive range of high quality programmes in Early Childhood Care & Education, Tourism & Hospitality Management, Business and Chinese as well as English Language studies, with most of the courses providing a complete academic pathway from certificate, through diploma to degree levels. Our courses are accredited by and/or conducted in partnership with local government agencies and top overseas institutions such as Beijing Normal University.


The school’s distinguished faculty are highly qualified and trained in their respective fields, and have years of experience preparing and mentoring students for success in life - whether they are seeking to embark on new careers or tto upgrade their skillss and knowledge.


As a member of the Crestar Education Group, it has a lot of opportunities to leverage on an extensive network of regional education and enrichment centres for its students' exposure in the real working environment.


Vision


To be a regional leader in lifelong education


Mission


To provide excellent and quality educational programmes and services

Please click here to view the courses

COURSES

A member of the Crestar Education Group that has more than 120 centres in its network of kindergarten, preschools, enrichment centres and before and after school programmes, KLCII has achieved more than its fair share of accomplishments and recognition.

Today, it is an acknowledged leader in the field of adult education. KLCII was established in 1988 to initially focus on early childhood education, and gradually expanded its suite of courses to meet market demand for quality higher education.


The school became the first private education institution to receive a four-year EduTrust Certification from the Council for Private Education in Singapore in 2010 in the Early Childhood sector.


KLC International Institute is recognised as a WDA-appointed programme partner for the early childhood care & education sector. Our Early Childhood programmes are also accredited by the Early Childhood Development Agency (ECDA).


The industry recognition enables KLCII to continually support its deserving students with scholarships and study grants, as well as internship opportunities in relevant industries.

Today KLCII offers a comprehensive range of high quality programmes in Early Childhood Care & Education, Tourism & Hospitality Management, Business and Chinese as well as English Language studies, with most of the courses providing a complete academic pathway from certificate, through diploma to degree levels. Our courses are accredited by and/or conducted in partnership with local government agencies and top overseas institutions such as Beijing Normal University.


The school’s distinguished faculty are highly qualified and trained in their respective fields, and have years of experience preparing and mentoring students for success in life - whether they are seeking to embark on new careers or tto upgrade their skillss and knowledge.


As a member of the Crestar Education Group, it has a lot of opportunities to leverage on an extensive network of regional education and enrichment centres for its students' exposure in the real working environment.


Vision


To be a regional leader in lifelong education


Mission


To provide excellent and quality educational programmes and services

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